Peer-reviewed Articles

‘Donetsk Don’t Tell – “Hybrid War” in Ukraine and the Limits of Social Media Influence Operations’. Journal of Information Technology & Politics 0, no. 0 (14 May 2023): 1–16. (with Alexei Abrahams, Peter Pomerantsev, and Volodymyr Yermolenko).

“Subversion, Cyber Operations, and Reverse Structural Power in World Politics”, European Journal of International Relations, 16 August 2022.

“A New and Better Quiet Option? Strategies of Subversion and Cyber Conflict”, Journal of Strategic Studies 0, no. 0 (27 July 2022): 1–25.

“The Subversive Trilemma – Why Cyber Operations Fall Short of Expectations”, International Security 2021; 46 (2): 51–90.

“A Tale of Two Cybers – How Threat Reporting by Cybersecurity Firms Systematically Underrepresents Threats to Civil Society.” Journal of Information Technology & Politics 18, no. 1 (June 11, 2020): 1–20. (with Ron Deibert and Jon Lindsay).


The Subversive Trilemma in Cyber Conflict and Beyond. Lawfare (blog), 3 August 2022.

Infiltrate, Exploit, Manipulate: Why the Subversive Nature of Cyber Conflict Explains Both Its Strategic Promise and Its Limitations, Lawfare (blog), 12 July 2022.

“There is no ‘Cyber Shock and Awe’ – Plausible Threats in the Ukrainian Conflict”. War on the Rocks. Feb 2022

“Digital Disinformation – Evidence From Ukraine”, CSS Analyses in Security Policy, No. 278, February 2021.

“Shaping Not Signaling: Understanding Cyber Operations as a Means of Espionage, Attack, and Destabilization.” International Studies Review, no. viaa086 (November 3, 2020). (with Florian Egloff)

“Persistent Engagement Neglects Secrecy at Its Peril.” Lawfare (blog), March 4, 2020.